VV • • <> *'7VT» ,0 0^ r"'-''* ^^ . . • A ■ '>!L:r<; • ■ ° \/ l-S: '■■■ "A ^o 1 ' > «• > ^.o. '*c. 1 • o I'd- «.tf(a0H.«> ^ A, ^ <^ o"^ c » " • ♦ "^o 'J\ '-^J /\ ''9j /\ •. > . "O. .^ « ■ • . <^ A> -<* ^^ •.-.o^' .^ O. ♦ ^oV^ q.. *»..>•* iO _«» >(<». (^ ♦ ^ - MEMORIAL - - ^ OF THE ^ lOO^ANNWERSARY OF THE WAR OF 181^^14 Historical Sketches n • . ** . OF THE Hundredth Anniversary of the War of 1812-14 n ■• BY R. W. GEARY President of the Lundy's Lane Historical Society. n Published by THE LUNDY'S LANE HISTORICAL SOCIETY Public Library Building, Niagara Falls, Ont. 1912 it; ^ •■''o ■^ A Short Account of the Battle ^ of Lundy's Lane. "Hozv sleep the brave, who sink to rest By all their country's wishes blest?" HE battle of Lundy's Lane was fought on the heights near the Falls of Niagara, on July 25th, 1814, between 3,000 British and Canadian troops, in command of General Sir Gordon Drummond, and the invading American army of 4,000 men — in three brigades — under Major-General Brown, and Gen- erals Scott, Ripley and Porter. The declining sun shone bright and cloudless as the troops of the opposing armies, with drums beat- ing and colours flying, marched gallantly to their positions in the field. On the summit of the hill a battery of 24-pounder guns was advanced some dis- tance in front of the indomitable "89th" regiment, the "8th King's," and the "1st" or "Royal Scots"— the oldest regiment in the British army. These famous regiments occupied the northern slope of the hill, in support of the guns, and formed the British centre. With the additional troops of the "41st," "103rd," "Canadian Militia," "Glengarry," "104th," and other regiments, the British Hne of battle was extended in the form of an irregular cres- cent facing the south and south-east, its left wing (under Gen. Riall) crossing the Portage Road, near 3 the junction with Lundy's Lane, and reaching a few hundred yards further east. The right wing stretched westward along the north side of Lundy's Lane for a short distance, then curved to the south, through an orchard and a field of wheat, to the dense woods beyond, where a body of Indians formed its extremity. The strategic importance of the British position compensated somewhat for Drummond's unequal numbers, as no better ground could be chosen for resisting an attack. The battle began at half-past five in the evening, with a charge by the Americans on the whole British front, the attack being chiefly directed against the centre and left. The centre attack was repelled by a deadly fire of grape from the artillery on the height, but after repeated attacks the left was forced back and General Riall wounded and taken prisoner —with a number of his men. The "9th," "11th," and "22nd" U. S. Infantry then charged impetu- ously upon the guns and, after a desperate fight, were repulsed by the "89th," "King's" and "Royals," who had advanced to their support — the assailants retiring in great confusion with heavy loss. Again the Americans advanced in great force and concen- trated a terrible fire from nine pieces of artillery against the British centre. A fierce artillery duel followed, in which the British guns maintained their superiority, one U. S. company losing twenty-seven out of thirty-six men serving three guns, before retiring. 4 Again and again were determined attacks made by the gallant foe, and met by the British with great steadiness and intrepid gallantry. Drummond's despatch states that — "These troops repeatedly, when hard pressed, formed round the colours of the *89th' regiment, and invariably repulsed the attacks made against them." By the faint light of the smoke-obscured moon, the battle continued to rage. In a brilliant and suc- cessful flank attack by Col. Miller's regiment, its approach being concealed by a thicket, all the British gunners were killed or wounded by a single volley at close range, and the guns on the hill cap- tured by the Americans, amid a most destructive musketry fire from the British infantry. Then fol- lowed a series of furious bayonet charges and fierce attacks by the British. With wild shouts of defiance their remaining guns were brought up, and the con- tending forces swept the hill with a deadly fire of artillery and musketry at short range — with fearful loss on both sides. During this prolonged and desperate contest. Gen- eral Scott, who had two horses killed under him, was struck twice and, being badly wounded, was carried off the field. A musket shot went through General Ripley's hat. General Brown was shot through the thigh and shortly after struck by a ball in the side and seriously hurt. He made over the command to General Ripley, and retired to his camp. General Porter also received a wound and General Drummond was dangerously wounded in the neck, 5 and had his horse shot dead. The conflict now be- came a close and confused struggle amdist the bat- tle's smoke and the darkness of night, until finally Capt. Glew, at the head of the gallant *'41st" regi- ment, by a splendid effort, regained the British guns and the heights. The fighting continued until mid- night, when the Americans, having three generals disabled and nearly one-third of their number killed and wounded, fell back to the south side of the Chippawa — leaving the British in possession of the field. The British loss in the engagement equalled that of the Americans, the 89th Royal Irish regiment, who bore the brunt of the battle, losing 254 men out of a total of 400, and the "Royal Scots" lost nearly 200 men out of 500 in the field. Scott's 1st Ameri- can Brigade, at the close of the action, was reduced to a few hundred effective men, and a company of the 23rd Infantry that went out with forty-five lost all but nine men. The result of the battle of Lundy's Lane was of great importance to Upper Canada, as the inva- sion was checked and the American army thrown back on Fort Erie, where it remained on the de- fensive until shortly before the end of the war. The fallen heroes of that fateful night sleep well upon this famous hill, where the sounds of Nia- gara's war of waters forever rise and fall above their honored graves. Brief Sketches of Places of Historic Interest and Natural Beauty at Niagara Falls and Vicinity. CHIPPAWA. |HIPPAWA is the most ancient village on the Canadian frontier. The French had a stockade at the mouth of the river before the conquest of Canada by the British, and during the Revolutionary War the British built a blockhouse, and had a force of regu- lars there. In 1812-14 this fort was strengthened, also a strong "tete-de-pont" built, with four heavy guns, at the head of the bridge, and a redoubt fur- ther up. Chippawa was the scene of an important battle during the War of 1812-14, in which the Brit- ish were defeated, and at the time of the Canadian Rebellion it was the centre of great military activ- ity. Laura Secord died at Chippawa in 1868, where she had lived for fifty years. Her cottage by the river is of much patriotic interest. THE FALLS OF NIAGARA AND QUEEN VICTORIA PARK. Of world-wide fame — have also war associations: General Brock, in July, 1812, built a stone battery 7 on the cliff "at the head of the lower ladder," to dominate the ferry below the falls. He also placed a defence of two heavy guns on the heights at Falls View, and during the retreat of the American army from Lundy's Lane the "Bridgewater mills" (near Dufferin Islands) were burned. NIAGARA GLEN, OR ''FOSTER'S FLATS." A great natural botanical preserve, hundreds of acres in extent, where almost all the various species of the flora of Canada grow in profusion, among immense rocks, gloomy caves and deep ravines — beside Niagara's rushing waters. Splendid speci- mens of native trees, wild flowers, rare ferns and mosses abound in wonderful variety and beauty in this secluded and picturesque glen. QUEENSTON AND QUEENSTON HEIGHTS. Queenston is called after the Loyal American regiment of "Queen's Rangers," who had a bar- racks there during the War of the Revolution. It is noted for tlie memorable battle of Queenston Heights, Oct. 13th, 1812, where the British General, Sir Isaac Brock, was killed, and the American army was defeated and taken prisoners by the British. The original Brock's monument was blown up by Canadian rebels in 1840, the present famous monu- 8 " I ment being completed in 1860, at a cost of nearly $50,000. The magnificent view from Queenston Heights is considered to be the finest in the Province. ST. DAVID'S. A U. E. Loyalist village of the earliest settlement, named after Major David Secord. It was burned by the Americans in 1814, and Sir Peregrine Mait- land, a former Governor, resided there at one time. St. David's — with its encircling hills, wild ravines, magnificent trees, vineyards, fields and groves, orch- ards and springing streams — is the most beautiful sylvan or rural locality in the Province of Ontario. STAMFORD VILLAGE. A picturesque and historic place on the old Port- age Road — with a ''village green" and ancient houses, churches and churchyards. FORSYTH'S. An historic place on Main street near the Falls, where General Sir Gordon Drummond had his mili- tary headquarters for some months in 1814, he being then Governor of Upper Canada also. Subsequently 9 the Earl of Elgin, Governor-General of Canada, with Lady Elgin and their son. Lord Bruce, took up resi- dence there for two years (1850-51), and during that time entertained many distinguished visitors, amongst whom was Jenny Lind, the famous Swiss singer, who sang there before Lord Elgin's house- hold and a number of invited guests. The old colonial house (which was situated in the centre of the grounds) has been since destroyed by fire. LUNDY'S LANE BATTLEFIELD— DRUM- MOND HILL. See ''account of the battle," and ''Drummond Hill monuments. )> 10 Notes on Some Historic Monuments and Tombs in Drummond Hill Cemetery. LUNDY'S LANE BATTLE MONUMENT— DRUMMOND HILL. ''This Pillar fair, of sculptured stone, will shozv Forever, in the light of glory, how Bngland and Canada stood fast that night At Lundy's Lane, and conquered for the right." IHE remains of 22 soldiers of the Royal Scots, 89th, 103rd, and other British regi- ments, lie in the vault beneath this granite shaft. These remains were unearthed at different times in various parts of the battlefield, and were re-interred on each occasion, with imposing military ceremonies. LAURA SECORD'S MONUMENT. ''One of the most patriotic and courageous Women of any age or country." The artistic bronze bust on this monument repre- sents the heroine at the age of 38 years, when she made her famous journey. Her family then con- sisted of four daughters and one son; two other daughters were born subsequently. When King Edward VH., then Prince of Wales, visited Niagara Falls in 1860, he was greatly interested in Laura 11 Secord's history, and on his return to England sent her the sum of one hundred pounds. THE AMERICAN SOLDIERS' MEMORIAL. Captain Hull, who gallantly led the last charge of the Americans in the Battle of Lundy's Lane, fell at this spot and lies buried here. The remains of 18 U.S. soldiers recently unearthed on the battlefield were re-interred here also with international mili- tary honors. 'The First Grave," A.D. 1797. The burial took place 17 years before the battle was fought. Tomh of Lt.-Col, the Hon. Cecil Bishopp, with an interesting inscription and marble tablet. Col. Bishopp was a brave young British officer, who took Black Rock, and was killed during the War of 1812-14. Monuments of Col. Gordon, Capt. Torrens, Capt. Patteson and Lieut. Hemphill. Brave British offi- cers who fell in the battles of 1812-14. Bdgeworth Ussher's Monument. — Ussher was assassinated near Chippawa in 1838, by Canadian rebels, headed by the notorious Lett, who afterwards blew up the first Brock's monument. Artillery and Infantry Trenches. — Where the slain British soldiers and gunners were buried after the battle of Lundy's Lane. 12 Lundy's Lane Historical Society. HE Lundy's Lane Historical Society was organized in 1887, and has the distinction of being the oldest historical society in the Province of Ontario. The late Rev. Canon Bull was its founder and first President, and the late James Wilson, C.E., Park Superintendent, its first Secretary-Treasurer. During the quarter of a century of its existence, the Society has done very important work in secur- ing the erection of enduring memorials on several historic battlefields of the Niagara Frontier, and by the publication and promotion of authentic histori- cal literature — in which it was greatly aided by Col. E. A. Cruikshank, F.R.S.C, the talented historian of the War of 1812-14. Much encouragement, too, has been given to the study of local history through public lectures and papers by prominent historians — and to the preservation of historical relics. The Lundy's Lane Historical Society's collection of war relics and antiquities, and the many private collec- tions of antique mahogany furniture, old china, pic- tures, Indian relics, military buttons, etc., in the possession of its members, are of great historical and artistic interest. 13 OFFICERS OF THE LUNDY'S LANE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. Honorary President . .Lieut. -Col. Cruikshank, F.R.S.C. President Robert W. Geary. 1st Vice-President ....Rev. Canon Bevan. 2nd Vice-President . . . H. L. Morphy. 3rd Vice-President ...A, Monro Grier, K.C. Secretary-Treasurer . .Jno. H. Jackson, C.E., Park Supt. Ass't-Secretary Miss J, Quillinan. Corresponding Sec'y ..Principal J. C. Morden. Auditors m- w "^T""- (Abel Land. Bxeciitive Committee. Major Vandersluys, Col. W. W. Thompson, M.D. C. L. Biggar, Charles Patten, Robert Chisholm, Abel Land. Miss Barnett, Miss Henderson, Mrs. (Dr.) Birdsall, Miss H. Chrystler, James C. Morden, Rev. Jas. Barber. C. F. Campbell, Miss Butters. Rev. Dr. Wallis, 14 PUBLICATIONS OF THE LUNDY'S LANE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. The Battle of Lundy's Lane, by Colonel Cruikshank, F.R.S.C 50 pages, 15c. The Siege of Fort Erie, by Col. Cruik- shank, F.R.S.C SO pages, 15c. The Battle of Queenston Heights, by Col. Cruikshank, F.R.S.C. 46 pages, 15c. The Fight in the Beechwoods, by Col. Cruikshank, F.R.S.C 32 pages, 10c. Butler's Rangers, by Col. Cruikshank, F.R.S.C 114 pages, 20c. Drummond's Winter Campaign, by Col. Cruikshank, F.R.S.C 30 pages, 10c. Laura Secord, by Mrs. S. A. Curzon 16 pages, .05c. Annals of Niagara, by Wm. Kirby, F.R.S.C 270 pages, 40c. Niagara 100 Years Ago, by Miss Carno- chan 38 pages, 15c. A Century Study, by Rev. E. J. Fessen- den 26 pages, 10c. The Documentary History of the Cani- paigns upon the Niagara Frontier, in 1812-14, by Lieut.-Col. Cruikshank, F.R.S.C. (Complete in 9 vols, of about 300 pages each), per vol 50c. Memorial of the 100th Anniversary of the War of 1812-14, by R. W. Geary . . 16 pages, .05c. The above publications are for sale at Thorburn s 3 Drug Stores, cor. of Lundy's Lane and Mam St., Vic- toria Ave., and Erie Ave., and may be obtamed also at the Society's Rooms, Public Library Buildmg. All requisitions for books by mail should be sent to John H. Jackson, C.E., Secretary-Treasurer L L. H b. Administration Building, Q. V. Park, Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada. 15 1 i^. Ul MILN-BINaHAM LIMITB*. TORONTO o ^' "><» o.. '♦ir,"'\i.O-' V**^^'\^* o ♦ s ♦ 4^ ^f . V*^^ ^^, bV > y' > o • » r '^^'^^^''^ .**\c:^/''-e, /.-.^^'.^o :. ■'-^^o^ : i •*^o< v^ .•.l:;^'* c^ »^o. lOv\ • •« 'oK • $ ■» o • » ■^^i- * "3 •3^ ^'^^ « * « :i^S^ 1989 «» 1^ * . <,. Granivillc, PA 5''^'>ic \v .. '^ •"• A^ ^ .0 4 0.